Management of Pesantren: A Study of Inspiration, Mediation, and Reflection of Kiai in Traditional Pesantren
* PhD Candidat of Islamic Educatioinal Management at UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta
The present study puts an emphasis on the unclear pattern of leadership and failure of pesantren. This study is an attempt to reject an existing opinion concerning conventional pesantren which is still traditional, individual and a kingdom-based system. (Dhofier, 1999; Geertz, 1960; Buresh, 2002). In other words, pesantren depends on its leader existence. Instead, this study is conducted to strengthen the notion that Kiai leadership pattern in traditional pesantren is collective-collegial and managerial. This study indicates that the leadership of Kiai in pesantren is determined by managerial insights of his ancestors (Mintzberg, 1973; Shalit, 2010; Mardiyah, 2012; Rindanah, 2013). The objectives of this study is to investigate the concept of managerial leadership in several traditional pesantren i.e. pesantren Bendakerep, Gedongan, and Buntet which is the oldest pesantren in Cirebon. In line with the objectives of the study, this study uses the approach of cultural interpretation. This study is conducted quantitatively by using descriptive method and quantitatively by using ex-post facto strengthened by the instruments of interview, observation, and documentation to find the data of Kiai leadership and managerial pattern, and various Kiai’s policy. The questionnaires are used to confirm the students concerning Kiai’s management which are analyzed with categorization, reduction, display, and clarification techniques supported by data triangulation. The findings of this study show that managerial inspiration is initiated through the following steps: 1) Meditation: an effort to obtain inspiration quietly and consistently, legitimize the offspring, have a spirit in leadership, and realize what is believed, 2) Mediation: an effort of Kiai’s self-integration and social interaction, 3) Reflection: an effort of self-correction, organizing policies, conducting endeavors in leadership, referring to the policies of the ancestors’ inspiration and insight. The implication derived from the findings in this study is to confirm and strengthen managerial roles proposed by Mintzberg (1973).
Topic: Education Policy and Leadership